3PL Vs. 4PL Guide
While researching fulfilment providers, you will likely come across two different terms: ‘3PL’ and ‘4PL’. While 3PLs are much more common, both terms relate to the outsourcing of fulfilment and ecommerce logistics services, so it’s important to understand the difference between the two.
In this article, you’ll learn the major differences between a 3PL and a 4PL to help you decide which type of logistics provider makes the most sense for your business.
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What is a 4PL?
Fourth-party logistics (4PL) providers, also called lead logistics providers (LLPs) are a type of logistics company that takes on some of the same roles as third-party logistics (3PL) providers while also having more accountability and responsibility in the process.
This is reflected in managing and delegating parts of the supply chain, including the transportation of goods, shipping orders to end customers, and managing multiple 3PLs.
The 3PLs within a 4PL’s network are operated independently and utilise a separate operational system. Each 3PL sets its standards and processes related to security and customer service.
What is a 3PL?
Characteristics of a 4PL
With a 4PL, you outsource the logistics management and services of a 3PL provider as well as functions higher and lower in the ecommerce supply chain like overseeing freight forwarders and last-mile logistics.
The 4PL manages the relationship with different 3PL providers, in addition to other logistics tasks such as transportation, inventory management, and technology. Examples of a 4PL company include Shopify Fulfilment Network, Deliverr, and ShipHero.
There are advantages and disadvantages to working with a 4PL. In terms of scalability, 4PLs can add warehouses to their network quickly, which allows merchants to expand their distribution network fast.
But there are some key disadvantages, including the lack of quality control, customer support, and inconsistency. Below is an overview of how 4PLs work.
4PLs manage the supply chain
4PLs act as the single point of contact for operational support and communication with other vendors. This helps streamline logistics processes for the merchant since the 4PL takes on a more strategic, operational role.
With a 4PL, the customer doesn’t have to worry about managing relationships with multiple vendors, finding ways to optimise the retail supply chain, or making decisions on logistics.
However, since every warehouse within a 4PL’s network operates independently, it can cause inconsistencies in fulfilment.
4PLs don’t own assets
Not always the case, but most 4PLs do not own or lease assets. Instead, they coordinate transportation, warehousing, and shipping services with other logistics companies. A 4PL works with other vendors, including a 3PL, to find ways to optimise the customer’s supply chain.
Differences between a 3PL vs a 4PL
When ecommerce businesses outsource fulfilment to a 3PL, they work directly with their 3PL partner who manages the entire fulfilment process. Ecommerce businesses outsource fulfilment to a single 3PL partner so they can eliminate managing a warehouse and spend less time tracking inventory, packing boxes, and shipping orders.
Unlike a 3PL, a 4PL adds an additional degree of separation between the merchant and the 3PL as they manage the relationship with the 3PL instead.
Here are some key differences between a 3PL and a 4PL.
A 3PL focuses on order fulfilment, which includes warehousing, picking and packing orders, and shipping packages. A 4PL takes it a step further by managing the entire supply chain, including fulfilment, transportation, and technology. With a 4PL company, a merchant works directly with the 4PL to resolve any issues that arise throughout the supply chain and with other vendors.
Supply chain optimisation
Unlike a 4PL, by partnering with a 3PL, a merchant can work directly with the 3PL to find ways to optimise fulfilment. For instance, ShipBob is a 3PL that partners with merchants to decide which fulfilment centre locations to store inventory based on where their customers are.
Since a 3PL operates all fulfilment centre locations within their network using warehouse management system (WMS), merchants are given access to data and analytics, from demand forecasting tools to shipping data, which helps the merchant make better decisions. Real-time inventory levels can be tracked and viewed from one dashboard as a single source of truth.
Since the 4PL is the merchant’s main point of contact, all communication is filtered through the 4PL to the different 3PLs. This can cause delays in resolving issues since the 4PL acts as the middleman during this process, rather than the merchant working directly with the 3PL. With this type of customer service, there is no ownership on the 3PL level, which can be a frustrating experience for the merchant.
With a 3PL partner, you’re given access to the same customer service team (in some cases, a dedicated account manager). This way, issues are resolved faster and you’re able to work with a team that understands your account.
How the 4PL process works
The goal of a 4PL is to manage and oversee the entire supply chain on behalf of the merchant, including the relationship with a 3PL. Here is an example of how a 4PL would work in partnership with an ecommerce business.
Step 1: Transportation
A 4PL will coordinate transportation of finished goods, oftentimes starting from the manufacturer and then sent to one or several warehouses that are operated by a 3PL company.
Step 2: Warehousing
After your products are transported to one or more warehouses, a 3PL service will take care of the day-to-day fulfilment tasks, such as receiving and storing inventory, picking and packing boxes, and shipping orders.
Step 3: Inventory management
Inventory management is managed by the 4PL using technology that centralises inventory tracking. When working with a 4PL, the 4PL provides the technology, such as inventory management software, which gives the merchant visibility into inventory levels in one place.
(Note: A tech-enabled 3PL also provides inventory management tools that integrate with a WMS, so merchants can track inventory across all warehouses in real-time.)
Step 4: Shipping
The final stage of a 4PL’s process is last-mile delivery. The 4PL will manage relationships with a 3PL and/or couriers that will pick up orders from the 3PL’s warehouse and ship orders out.
Which type of logistics model is best for your business?
3PLs are by far the most common logistics model for ecommerce businesses, while 4PLs remove the merchant one degree further from the supply chain. 4PLs act as a consultant or head of logistics who outsources all supply chain tasks, unlike a 3PL who serves as a fulfilment team.
Here is an overview of the different phases of an ecommerce business and the logistics model that is typically best suited for each stage.
You’re just starting out: in-house fulfilment
If you’re a startup business, you can begin by fulfiling orders in-house. Keep in mind that this model is oftentimes not scalable, as packing and shipping orders can be a time-consuming task, which can take you away from other important aspects of your business like product development or marketing.
You’re experiencing rapid growth: 3PL
As you grow, outsourcing fulfilment is one of the best ways to scale more efficiently. A 3PL will take care of the order fulfilment process for you, including ecommerce warehousing, inventory management, picking and packing, and working with couriers to ship orders to customers.
“We are growing really fast and won’t slow down anytime soon. With ShipBob, we have the option to use more of their warehouses to further reduce shipping costs. Because ShipBob has a lot of people to handle our orders and additional warehouses we can expand into, we can scale up with ease as we continue to grow quickly. If we ran our own warehouse, it would be much harder to hire people and we’d inevitably outgrow the space.”
Oded Harth, CEO & Co-Founder of MDacne
ShipBob is a 3PL that offers international fulfilment centre locations and best-in-class technology to help merchants save on shipping costs and speed up transit times.
You’re reaching enterprise-level: 4PL
If you’re looking to partner with a logistics company that will manage your supply chain for you, a 4PL might be an option worth considering. However, a 4PL can add another layer of separation from you and your supply chain, which means less control. Because of this lack of control, many fast-growing ecommerce businesses continue to work with a 3PL that they can grow with over time.
“As we started to hit that first inflection point of growth, it became apparent we needed to look for a 3PL that could help us expand geographically in the US and also drive down shipping costs and expenses.”
Michael Peters, VP of E-Commerce Operations at TB12
How ShipBob works
If you want more out of a 3PL than just a picking and packing service, we’ve got you covered. ShipBob is an end-to-end fulfilment partner for your business, and lets you accomplish more while your business grows.
ShipBob is a truly global logistics platform that fulfils multichannel orders. Out of the box, ShipBob is a one-stop-shop to hand off fulfilment. You get full access to our:
- All-in-one logistics platform, with free analytics and reporting capabilities
- Dozens of native integrations with leading ecommerce platforms and integrations
- Our network of global fulfilment centres
- Negotiated courier rates
- World-class support
- And much more!
Our mission is to help you be more successful online, and your needs are constantly evolving — so we are always adding new fulfilment centres and innovating newfeatures, capabilities, channels, and integrations for our customers, so that we can support you in the long run.
To do this, we listen closely to customer feedback for actionable takeaways. Here are just a few enhancements to our fulfilment infrastructure and technology that we’ve implemented based on our customers’ needs:
- Global locations based on our customers’ requests
- EDI compliant B2B orders & retail dropshipping capabilities (shipping orders placed on retailers’ websites)
- Customisation for orders, including custom packaging, inserts, and gift notes
- Value-added services such as kitting, returns processing, and more
Simple, flexible 3PL pricing
ShipBob aims to simplify complex 3PL pricing. Our total fulfilment cost model includes picking, packing and shipping all bundled into one line item so you can easily calculate your costs:
- Picking is free for the first 4 picks in an order (then $0.20 per pick for the fourth pick and after).
- Packing and standard packaging materials are free.
- Exact shipping costs are variable depending on the package weight, dimensions, shipping speed, destination, and other factors.
And at ShipBob, you will not be charged line items for:
- Standard packaging
- ShipBob’s software (including integrations, built-in analytics, and more)
- World-class support
- Dedicated account management (for large customers)
We also offer additional value-added services like returns process, kitting, B2B orders, and much more. Read below for a full breakdown of our pricing, or request a quote tailored to your specific needs!
Why small and medium-sized businesses trust 3PLs like ShipBob
ShipBob is not a 4PL but a 3PL that offers on-demand logistics solutions, premium technology, and best-in-class customer service and expertise.
Managing fulfilment yourself can be difficult, time-consuming, and costly, while partnering with a 4PL can lead to even less control and inconsistencies.
ShipBob works with fast-growing ecommerce businesses to help them scale their business with Amazon-level logistics.With ShipBob, you can spend less time on logistics and save money in the long run all while still having full transparency and visibility inside the entire supply chain.
With an international fulfilment network powered by the same WMS, ShipBob makes it easy to expand into new locations based on where your customers are. You can track inventory in real time, view inventory allocation, and analyse SKU performance, all from one dashboard. You’re also given control over your supply chain with access to our analytics and reporting tool to make data-driven decisions.
Lastly, ShipBob provides access to a premium customer support team. No matter where you store inventory, you get access to support from a team that understands your needs. This ensures fast resolution so you can keep your business running smoothly.
“Overall, we are so appreciative of how merchant-focused ShipBob is. ShipBob has been so helpful in making sure we and our customers are taken care of, and it’s been such a rewarding partnership.
We feel like ShipBob is a partner that’s in it together with us. We never get the sense that ShipBob is just interested in getting our fulfilment fees. It is much more than that — they really care about our success and what makes us successful as a company.”
No matter what size your business is, you have options on how to manage your supply chain. Although a 4PL can manage the entire supply chain for you, the most common logistics company is a 3PL.
The right 3PL partner will go beyond just fulfilment by working with you to optimise your supply chain and help you make better decisions for your business.
“I felt like I couldn’t grow until I moved to ShipBob. Our old 3PL was slowing us down. Now I am encouraged to sell more with them. My CPA even said to me, ‘thank god you switched to ShipBob.’”
Courtney Lee, founder of Prymal
To learn more about how ShipBob can help your growing business, click the button below to request a quote. To learn more about how ShipBob’s logistics capabilities compare to other 3PLs, read this review.Request Fulfilment Pricing
1. What are the 5 types of logistics services?
The terms used to describe various logistics companies, services, or consultants can be confusing and not always intuitive.
The easiest way to understand the five different types of logistics services is to remember that as the number goes up, an additional party is added to the supply chain. For instance, a first-party logistics provider transports goods or products directly from the source to another location, while a fifth-party logistics provider manages the supply chain network, from production to delivery. Below is an overview of every type of logistic service:
- A 1PL (first-party logistics) provider transports goods and products directly from one location to another.
- A 2PL (second-party logistics) provider has ownership over the transportation means while distributing products for their customer.
- A 3PL (third-party logistics) provider manages all aspects of fulfilment, from warehousing to shipping.
- A 4PL (fourth-party logistics) provider manages a 3PL on behalf of the customer and other aspects of the supply chain.
- A 5PL (fifth-party logistics) provider manages the entire supply chain network for a business, also known as the ‘logistics aggregator.’
2. What does 4PL stand for?
A 4PL stands for fourth-party logistics, which refers to a logistics service that arranges and manages the entire supply chain, from transporting goods to shipping customer orders. The 4PL acts as a consultant or middleman, between the merchant and the 3PL.
3. What services does a 4PL offer?
A 4PL arranges and manages the entire supply chain, including the relationship with a 3PL. They don’t actually pack boxes or drive goods from one location to another. Other 4PL services might include: logistics data and analytics, business and strategic planning, change management, and more.
4. What are the cons of opting for a 4PL?
There’s a lot to keep track of in logistics. Most ecommerce businesses start out by managing their own inventory (in-home or at a small warehouse) and shipping orders themselves. When it’s time to outsource supply chain management, it can be hard to let go of some control. Although a 4PL will manage multiple logistics services for you, including outsourced fulfilment through a 3PL, it adds another layer between you and operations, which leads to less control over your supply chain.